GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES FOR MAPPING AND ANALYSIS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES IN GOMBE STATE, NORTH-EAST NIGERIA
This study was carried out to apply satellite- based climatic data in geospatial environment to downscale climatic data into smaller political units and to generate and analyse thematic maps of climatic variables in Gombe State. Spatial climatic data on rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature were obtained from DivaGIS climatic data, while water vapour, solar radiation and wind speed were derived from the WorldClim climatic data. Monthly climatic records from 1981-2021 in twenty-four points evenly spread across Gombe State on rainfall, minimum/maximum temperature and relative humidity were obtained from NASA Power Project to generate the trends and seasonal patterns of temperature and rainfall. Daily climatic records of rainfall were also acquired from globalweather climatic data between 1979 and 2013 and processed to derive the values of rainfall indices using Nieuwolt formula. The monthly climatic records were processed using the kriging module of ArcGIS to transform the point climatic data to spatial data. The result revealed that rainfall in Gombe State occurs mainly between May and September with the peak in August, while the trends in rainfall was decreasing at the southern and northern parts of the state but increasing at the central region. Rainfall onset occurs in the 1st or 2nd week of May in the south, but late (1st week of June) in the north. Rainfall cessation at the central and northern parts of the state occurs in the 3rd or 4th weeks of September, while the southern part experiences late cessation between the 1st and 3rd week of October. The LRS ranges from 95-111 and 160-175 days in the northern and southern parts respectively. High relative humidity was recorded between May and October with the peak in August. Spatial patterns of solar radiation and wind speed were also generated and analyzed. Awareness of the use of satellite based climatic data and geospatial techniques for downscaling climatic data were recommended in order to ease the problems of lack or inadequate climatic data for spatial mapping. Causal factors for the spatial patterns of climatic variables in Gombe state was suggested for further studies
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