• Lawal Maryam Aiyelabegan Soil science



Total sulphur, Sulpahate sulphur, inorganic sulphur, adsorbed sulphate, non-sulphate sulphur


An investigation study was carried out to determine the status and forms of sulphur in soils of Wudil and Gaya, Kano state, Nigeria. Soils were collected using grid sampling method across two farming communities, Gaya and Wudil Local Government areas of Kano state. A total of 297 samples were collected at a depth of 0 - 30 cm. The samples were subjected to routine soil tests while the forms of sulphur were determined using turbidmetric method. Descriptive analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The result obtained showed that soils from both locations were sandy loam with slightly acidic to neutral pH and low content of organic matter (0.38 and 0.24%) and nitrogen (0.06 and 0.04%). The sulphur level in both locations was sufficient. Differences in the concentration of the forms of sulphur were observed. Total sulphur had the highest amount of sulphur 498.30 mg kg-1, while non-sulphate sulphur had the least amount 0.74 mg kg-1. The low amounts of adsorbed and non-sulphate sulphur observed were attributed to the texture (sandy loam) and pH (6.24 and 6.99) of the soil. It can be concluded that the sulphur levels in both locations; Gaya and Wudil were high. Therefore, management strategies that will enable sulphur mineralization in the soil should be maintained by farmers to enhance availability of sulphate in the soil.


Abou Seeda, M.A., Sahar, M. Z.., Yassen, A.A., Abou El-Nour, E.A.A. and Gad Mervat, M. 2020. Importance of sulphur and its role in plant physiology. Plant Nutrition Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth St., 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Current Science International 09: 198-231

Adamu, G.K. and Aliyu, A.K. 2012. Determination of the influence of texture and organic matter on soil water holding capacity in and around Tomas irrigation scheme, Dambatta local government area, Kano state. Revised journal of environmental earth science. 4:1038-1044

Almu H., Abdulkadir N.A.,Sani A., Adamu U.K., Aminu M.A. 2021. Potassium Distribution in Surface Soils of Kust Teaching, Research and Commercial Farm, Gaya, Kano State. African Journal of Agriculture and Food Science 4(2), 26-35. DOI:10.52589/AJAFSQOQKELBV.

Amin, M. A., Almu, H., Ahmad, U. B. and Alassan,A. 2022. Soil Fertility Status of Millet and Sorghum Farms in Wudil, Kano State Nigeria and the Agronomic Implications. International Journal of Agriculture, Food and Biodiversity (IJAFAB)Vol. 1 (Issue 1),pp. 85- 89.

Anderson, J.M. and Ingram, J.S.I. 1998. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility: A Handbook of Methods. 2nd Edition., CAB International, Wallingford, UK., Pp. 221.

Balanagoudar, S. R. and Satyanarana, T. 1990. Depth distribution of different forms of sulphur in Vertisols and Alfisols, Journal Indian Society of Soil Science. 38 (4): 634-640.

Bappa, P., Parimal, P. , Jayanta, I. , Dibyendu, C. , and Ashok, C. 2014. Forms of sulphur and their relationship in four contrasting agro-climatic zones of West Bengel, India. International biannual journal of environmental sciences. 8 (1 and 2): 85-89.

Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. 2002. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 13th Edn., Pearson Education, Singapore. Pages: 960.

Bray, R.H. and Kurtz, L.T. 1945. Determination of Total Organic and Available Forms of Phosphorus in Soils. Soil Science 59: 39-45

Bremmer, J. M. 1996. Nitrogen-Total. In: Page, A. L.; Miller, R. H.; Keeny D. R. (Eds). In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy. Madison, USA. (pp. 595-624.).

Camberato, J., Maloney, S. Casteel, S. and Johnson, K. 2012. Sulfur deficiency in corn. Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Retrieved from: deficiency in Alfafa

Chapman, H.D. Pratt, P.F. 1961. Methods for analysis for soils, plants and waters, University of California, Div. Agriculture Science. California, Los Angeles. Pp 60 -61

Chesnin, L., Yien, C.H. 1950. Turbidimetric determination of available sulphur. Soil Science Society. American Proceedings. 15:149- 151.

Das, A. C. and Saha, D. 2003. Effect of diazotrophs on the mineralization of organic nitrogen in the rhizosphere soils of rice (Oryza sativa). Journal of Crop and Weed. 3(1): 47-51.

ESU, I. E. 1991. Detailed Soil Survey of NIHORT Farm at Bunkure Kano State, Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University Zaria; Kaduna, Nigeria. pp. 27-37.

Evans, C.A., Rost, C.O. 1945. Total organic sulphur of minnessotto soils. Soil Science. 59:125-137.

Fox, R.L., Olson, R.A. and Rhoades, H.F. 1964. Evaluating the sulphur status of soils by plant and soil tests. Soil Science Society American Proceedings. 28: 243-246.

Gee, G.N. and Bouder, J.W. 1986. Particle size distribution In: Klute, A., Ed., methods of soil analysis part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods 2nd edition, Agronomy society of America/ soil science society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, 383-411

Gharmakher, N., Matchet J., Beaudoin, N., Recons, S. 2009. Estimation of sulphur mineralization and relationships with nitrogen and carbon in soils. Biological fertility soils. 45: 297-304.

Głowacka, A. 2016. “The role of intercropping in plant biofortyfication,” in Cropping Systems: Applications, Management and Impact, J. G. Hodges, Edition, Nova Science Publisher Inc., New York, NY, USA.

IITA. 1982. Automated and Semi-Automated Methods of Soil and Plant Analysis. In International Institute for Tropical Agriculture Manual Series No. 7

Mclean, E.O. 1965. Aluminium. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Agronomy 9, Part II C.A. Black (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy. Madison, Wisconsin pp978 – 998

Malgwi, W.B., Ojanuga, A.g., Chude, V.O., Kparmwang, T. and Raji, B.A. 2000. Morphological and physical properties of some soils at Samaru Zaria, Nigeria. Niger Journal soil Res., 1: 58-64.

Manu, A., Bationo, A. and Geiger, S.C. 1991. Fertility status of selected millet producing soils of West Africa with emphasis on phosphorus. Soil Sci., 152: 315-320.

Nelson, D.W. and Sommers, L.E. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In Methods of soil Analysis. Part 2, Chemical and microbiological methods. Agronomy Monograph no. 9 (2nd Edn.). Madison, USA. PP. 539-580.

NIPOST, 2009. Nigerian postal service with map of local government area. Kano state. Nigeria.

NSPFS , 2005. Nigerian Soil Fertility Rating and Thematic Maps. National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS); Abuja, Nigeria, 2005.

Olsen, S. R., C. V. Cole, F. S. Watanabe and Dean, L.A. 1954. Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. U. S. Department of Agriculture Circular No. 939. Banderis, A. D., D. H. Barter and K. Anderson. Agricultural and Advisor

Safaa, M. M. Khaled, S. M. and Hanan, S. S. 2013. “Effect of elemental sulphur on solubility of soil nutrients and soil heavy metals and their uptake by maize plants,” Journal of American Science. 9: (12) 19–24.

Saren, S., Barman, S., Mishra, A. and Saha, D. 2016. Effect of added organic matter and sulphur on transformation of different fractions of sulphur in soil. International journal of life sciences. 11(4):2399-2403

Sawyer, J.E., Lang, B. and D.W. Barker, D.W. 2015. Sulfur management for Iowa crop production. Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Shehu B.M., Jibrin, J.M. and Samndi, A.M. 2015. Fertility status of selected soils in the sudan savanna biome of northern Nigeria. International Journal of Soil Science. 10(2): 74-83.

Solomon, D., Lehmann, J., Tekalign, M., Fritzsche, F. and Zech, W. 2001. Sulfur fractions in particle-size separates of the sub-humid Ethiopian highlands as influenced by land use changes. Geoderma. 102: 41-59.

Sutar, K.R. Aravinda, K. Pujar, A.M. and Herbsur, N.S. 2017. International Journal of pure and Applied Biological Science. 5(6):1582-1596.

Tabatabai, M.A. 1987 Importance of sulphur in crop production. Biogeochemistry 1:45–62

USDA, 1999. Soil Taxonomy- A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA Agricultural Handbook. No. 436. Second Edition. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 869pp

Virmani, S.M. and Kanwar, J.S. 1971. Distribution of forms of sulphur in six soil profiles of North East India. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 19(1):73-77.

Williams, C.H. and Steinbergs, A. 1959. Soil ·sulphur fractions as chemical indices of available sulphur in some Australian Soils. Australian Journal of Agriculture. Res. 1959; 10:340-352.

Xue, Y. F. Yue, S. C. and Zhang, Y. Q. 2012. “Grain and shoot zinc accumulation in winter wheat affected by nitrogen management,” Plant and Soil. 361(1-2) 153–163.