• I.M WADA
  • A.M. UMAR



Additive, Ensilage, In-vitro, Poultry Litter, Rice milling waste


The experiment was conducted to examine the physical properties, pH, temperature, proximate composition, fibre fraction, energy content and mineral composition of ensiled rice milling waste (RMW) treated with urea and poultry litter in a completely randomized design. RMW was treated with of Urea and Poultry Litter (PL) and ensiled in in-vitro laboratory silos (946ml). The treatment combinations were; A (100%RMW), B (100%RMW+ Urea), C (80%RMW + 20%PL), and D (60%RMW + 40%PL). The treatments were ensiled for 21 days in triplicates. At the expiration of each ensiling period, samples were taken for analyses. The results for physical properties showed that most of the silages were adequately fermented with sweet aroma. The compounded silages were acidic 4.34 – 4.86 except treatments B and D which had pH of 7.96 and 7.91 respectively. The temperatures of the silages were significantly (P<0.05) different. Based on the physical properties, pH and temperature evaluated, most of the silages can be considered to be well prepared. The proximate composition of silages differ significantly (P<0.05), higher percentages in CF and Ash were recorded in Treatment A. Dry matter content was also significantly different (P<0.05) with treatment A having the highest DM (97.19%). The CP in treatment D (6.13%) proved superior. RMW and Urea mixtures resulted in silages with highest %NDF, %HEM and Energy. Lowest NDF, ADF, CEL and ADL values were obtained in treatment D. The nutritive quality of treatment D was proved to be higher and thus it is recommended for dry season ruminant feeding.


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